History of Medicine

History of Medicine Society will hold organizational meeting October 3

Illustration of a fly’s eye from Robert Hooke’s Micrographia (1665), collection of the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library. The Micrographia is one of the books that will be featured in Dr. Charleen Moore’s presentation on some of the treasures of the Nixon library.

A new organization is being formed at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. The History of Medicine Society will provide a relaxed, interactive setting, with opportunities to discuss interesting stories of our predecessors as enrichment to our scientific and medical endeavors.  Membership will be open to students, faculty, and staff from all schools at UT Health Science Center, as well as from local undergraduate institutions.

Everyone is invited to learn more at the group’s introductory meeting, which will be held October 3, 2012 at 6:00 pm in the Howe Conference Room, 5th floor, Briscoe Library next to the Special Collections Reading Room.

For the group’s first program, Dr. Charleen Moore from the Department of Cellular and Structural Biology will speak about some of the rare book treasures of the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library.  Among the books she will discuss that will be on display following her presentation are:

Oldest book in the Nixon library

1481 Celsus, De Medicina, Roman medicine

Anatomy

1543 A. Vesalius, De Fabrica

1597 (1924 facsimile) Ketham, The fasciculus medicinae

1749 B. Albinus, Tables of Skeleton and Muscles

Natural History

1859 C. Darwin On the Origin of Species (1st edition)

Dentistry

1778 J. Hunter, Natural History of Human Teeth

General Medicine

1582 Avicenna, Canon of Medicine

Microscopy

1667 R. Hooke, Micrographia

Obstetrics/Gynecology

1851 J. Hunter, The Gravid Uterus

Ophthalmology

1583 G. Bartisch, Ophthalmodouleia (1st edition)

Nursing

1859 F. Nightingale, Notes on Nursing (1st edition)

Surgery

1821 C. Bell, Illustrations of the Great Operations of Surgery

Psychiatry

1632 Burton Anatomy of Melancholy – oldest printed book in English

Botany/Pharmacology

1785 W. Withering, An Account of the Foxglove (1st edition)

Early San Antonio and Texas

1853 G. Cupples, Case Books (one of San Antonio’s early physicians)

1936 P.I. Nixon, A Century of Medicine in San Antonio

1946 P.I. Nixon, The Medical Story of Early Texas

Newest  Addition

1801, 1806, 1808 J. Bell, The Principles of Surgery (3 vol. 1st editions)

 

An RSVP will be appreciated. For more information or to RSVP, please contact one of the individuals below.

Suzanne Thibodeaux, MS-4, thibodeauxs@livemail.uthscsa.edu

Daniel Barron, GS-2, barrond@livemail.uthscsa.edu

Lindsey Jackson, MS-4, jacksonla@livemail.uthscsa.edu

Dr. Charleen Moore, Faculty Advisor, moorec@uthscsa.edu
 

Illustrator for the Netter Collection of Medical Illustrations to speak April 10

Dr.-Carlos-MachadoWednesday, April 10

6:00 pm

Howe Conference Room, Briscoe Library

Dr. Carlos Machado, physician and artist for The Netter Collection of Medical Illustrations, will speak to the History of Medicine Society of the Friends of the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library on April 10, 2013 at 6:00 p.m. in the evening.  Dr. Machado will speak on the topic: Converging Paths: The Styles of Netter and Machado.

An exhibit, The Artistic Style of Carlos Machado, MD: Selected Illustrations from the Netter Art Collection, is currently on display on the third floor of the Briscoe Library.  The exhibit is on loan from NetterImages.com, ©Elsevier.

Before his artistic talents took his career in a different direction, Dr. Machado practiced medicine as a cardiologist in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. His skill in medical illustration came to the attention of Ciba-Geigy, which at that time controlled the illustration work initiated by Dr. Frank H. Netter.  Dr. Machado has contributed to the Netter Collection of Medical Illustrations for nineteen years, working first for Ciba-Geigy/Novartis, then Icon, and finally Elsevier. He has added over 1,000 new illustrations to the collection, and also updated many of the Netter images to reflect current medical practice and knowledge.

As part of his talk on April 10, Dr. Machado will discuss how his technique has evolved over time, and the factors that influenced his development as an artist. He will discuss his experience working in various media, and comment on similarities and differences between his and Dr. Netter’s professional training, styles, and particular techniques.

Dr. Machado received his medical degree at the Faculdade Medicina de Teresopolis, and his postgraduate degree in cardiology from Santa Casa de Misericordia in Rio de Janeiro.  His illustrations can be seen in Clinical Symposia, The Netter Collection of Medical Illustrations, and the highly acclaimed Interactive Atlas of Clinical Anatomy.

The Netter Presenter database, which contains images from Netter: Atlas of Human Anatomy 5th Edition, can be accessed online through the database page on the library’s website.

Other Netter anatomical resources, including print resources, can be found by searching with the keyword “Netter” in the library’s online catalog.

Susan Hunnicutt, Special Projects Librarian

In the history of medicine — Early ophthalmology text turns 500 this year

First page of treatise "De oculis" from Champier's _Speculum Galeni_

The first page of the treatise "De oculis" from Symphorien Champier's _Speculum Galeni_ (Lyon, 1512)

The P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library is celebrating the 500th birthday of one of its treasures, an edition of Symphorien Champier’s Speculum Galeni.  The book includes one of the first treatises on ophthalmology ever printed.

Symphorien Champier (1472-1539) was an early French humanist and physician to Charles VIII, Louis XII, and the Duke of Lorraine.  He settled in Lyon, where he established the College of the Doctors of Lyon and studied Greek and Arab scholars, as well as medicinal science, composing a great number of historical works.   He was also an admirer of Galen, the great second-century Greek physician and philosopher.  Champier set out to expand his contemporary colleagues’ knowledge of Galen by using a powerful new tool: the printing press.  

Speculum Galeni, printed in Lyon in 1512, begins with Champier’s own biography of Galen and a list of Galenic works.  It continues with Champier’s careful compilation of Latin translations of key works that were (at that time) attributed to Galen, to form a complete Treatise of Medicine.  Included in the compilation is “De oculis,” a treatise on the eyes, the first page of which appears in the photo above. According to later historians, “De oculis” may not have been Galen’s at all – it is only known today from this Latin translation, and no Greek original has ever been found.  Nonetheless, its inclusion in Champier’s compilation makes it one of the first printed works on the subject of ophthalmology.

Our copy of Speculum Galeni is bound together with another work of Champier called Practica nova in medicina which was probably printed several years earlier, around 1509. The beautiful binding was also created around the same time; it is stamped pigskin over wooden boards with metal clasp closures.  The whole volume is in beautiful condition.

Photo of cover of our copy of Champier's book

The handcrafted early-16th-century cover of Champier's book.

We know from the stamps and inscriptions in the book that it once belonged to the Strahov Monastery Library in Prague.

Speculum Galeni came to the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library as part of the Andrew A. Sandor Ophthalmology collection, a group of some 400 rare and historical books that the library acquired in 1988. We invite you to come and see this historical treasure, along with many other treasures on the history of ophthalmology such as Georg Bartisch’s Ophthalmodouleia (1583) and Samuel Thomas Sommering’s Abbildungen des menschlichen Auges (1801).

The P. I. Nixon Medical Historical Library Reading Room is located on the fifth floor of the Briscoe Library and is open Monday-Friday, 8:00 a.m. – 5:00 p.m.  In order to view books in the collection, it is best to schedule an appointment prior to visiting by calling 567-2470.

Luke Rosenberger, Director of Library Technology and Historical Collections

Integrating the humanities into anatomy instruction

Article documents art and anatomy workshop offered at the UT Health Science Center

Penelope Borchers, Special Collections Librarian, is a co-author with Dr. Charleen Moore of the Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, of an article in an upcoming issue of Anatomical Sciences Education:

Moore, C. M., Lowe, C., Lawrence, J., & Borchers, P. (2011). Developing observational skills and knowledge of anatomical relationships in an art and anatomy workshop using plastinated specimens, in press. Anatomical Sciences Education. Epub ahead of print retrieved July 29, 2011. doi: 10.1002/ase.244.

Constance Lowe, M.F.A. and Jayne Lawrence, M.F.A., both of UTSA, are also co-authors.

The article describes art and anatomy workshops that took place in the Briscoe Library in 2009 and 2011.  The workshops rely in part on materials housed in the collection of the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library.

From the abstract: Many medical schools have developed formal art observation training in conjunction with nearby art museums to enhance the visual diagnostic skills of their medical students. We report here on an art and anatomy workshop that paired medical and art students who did drawing exercises from plastinated anatomical specimens and the animated face to hone observational skills… We propose workshops such as these …  will assist the medical student in developing diagnostic skills for identifying disease and the art student in using the human body as subject. We further propose that these programs will help students develop humanistic sensitivities and provide an outlet for expression of the emotional aspects of dealing with disease and mortality.

Interdisciplinary Art and Anatomy Workshop showcases the resources of the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library

Dr. Charleen Moore, Ph.D. of the Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, Jayne Lawrence, M.F.A., of the Department of Art and Art History at the University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), and Penelope Borchers, M.L.S., Special Collections Librarian in the Briscoe Library, organized the Art and Anatomy Workshop as an interdisciplinary experience in the representation of the human body.  The workshop is built around the resources of the rare book collection of the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library, including original works by Vesalius (1514-1564), Albinus (1697-1770), Paolo Mascagni (1755-1815), William Hunter (1718-1783) and John Hunter (1728-1793).

On April 8, senior art students from Ms. Lawrence’s advanced special studies class at UTSA joined second and third year medical and dental students for the day-long workshop, which took place in the Howe Conference Room and the Special Collections Reading Room of the Briscoe Library.

Dr. Moore  spoke about anatomists/artists from the 15th to the 19th centuries, and Nancy Place, M.S., Director of Multimedia Services, provided an introduction to the contemporary field of medical illustration.   Two guests, Carlos Machado, M.D., medical illustrator for the Elsevier Netter Collection; and Ron Philo, Ph.D., retired senior lecturer in the Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, were available to interact one-on-one with the students. Dr. Philo is the author of two books on the anatomical drawings of Leonardo Da Vinci.  David Baker, M.A., Sam Newman, B.F.A,. and Christopher McKee, B.F.A., medical illustrators in the Department of Information Management and Services – Academic Technology Services, were also present.

Students had the opportunity to examine many rare anatomical texts from the P.I. Nixon collection.  They ended the day with a studio drawing session organized around plastinated human specimens from the Department of Cellular and Structural Biology.

Susan Hunnicutt
Special Projects Librarian

Also in April

Students of the history of anatomy visited the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library on Friday, April 22.

The History of Anatomy course is offered each spring as an Enrichment Elective for first year medical students and a Special Topics course for graduate students.  Dr. Charleen Moore is director of the course.

Rare Books in the Special Collections Reading Room

John Hunter: “the father of scientific surgery”: Resources from the collection of the P.I. Nixon Library

Scottish anatomist and surgeon John Hunter is described as “the father of scientific surgery.”

Illustration of jaws and teeth from The natural history of the human teeth: explaining their structure, use, formation, growth, and diseases, by John Hunter, 1778.

The youngest of ten children, Hunter grew up on a farm on the outskirts of Glasgow and received only a basic education.  After spending several years as a cabinetmaker, he joined his brother William, a prominent anatomist and obstetrician, in London.  There, while preparing specimens for William’s anatomy lectures, John had dealings with the notorious ‘resurrection men’ who supplied medical schools with cadavers.  John’s dissection skills were so impressive that he was taken on as William’s assistant, and in 1753, after studying medicine, he became a master anatomist.

During the Seven Years’ War John Hunter served as staff surgeon in the British Army, gathering experiences he would later compile into his famous treatise on gunshot wounds.  Back in London, he returned to surgical practice and to his extensive collection of specimens, one of which was the skeleton of Charles Byrne, the legendary Irish pituitary giant.  Hunter’s reputation grew, and he eventually became a Fellow of the Royal Society and surgeon-extraordinaire to George III.

John Hunter was one of science’s most brilliant innovators.  He published breakthrough studies on venereal disease (inadvertently contracting syphilis in the course of his experiments). He also developed important new surgical techniques – among them, methods for repairing the Achilles tendon and for arterial ligature in cases of aneurysm.

The Natural History of Human Teeth, one of Hunter’s most important works, revolutionized the practice of dentistry and provided medical research with a new, scientific nomenclature for the teeth.  Hunter based his book on detailed observations of the anatomy of the jaw and mouth.  He described the tooth’s construction – bone, pulp and enamel – and examined the processes of tooth development in fetuses and children.  Hunter’s many valuable contributions to the advancement of medicine make him one of the greatest names in science.

The P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library owns all three of the Hunter classics mentioned in this article:

The Natural History of the Human Teeth

Treatise on the Venereal Disease

Treatise on the Blood, Inflammation, and Gun-Shot Wounds

Visitors can stop by the Special Collections Reading Room– Briscoe Room 5.078— to view these medical historical treasures.  Information about reading room hours can be found here.

Pennie Borchers
Special Collections Librarian

Local exhibit showcases rare books from the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library

Regimen Sanitatus Salerni

Regimen Sanitatis Salernitanum, a primary source for medieval humorism, appeared in manuscript form between the 11 and the 14th centuries. It was enormously popular. Following its first appearance in print it was translated into almost every European language. Nearly forty different editions were produced before 1501. The P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library owns a 1575 edition of the work, Regimen Sanitatis Salerni, that was produced in London.

Humoral medicine, with its roots in ancient Greece, held that an excess or deficiency of any of four bodily liquids was a primary source of differences in temperment and health.  Humorism was the most commonly held view of the human body in the West before the advent of modern scientific medicine in the nineteenth century.

A local exhibit currently on display in the Briscoe Library provides an introduction to humoral thinking and showcases some of the resources of the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library that shed light on that tradition.

The local exhibit, which has been planned in conjunction with the National Library of Medicine exhibit There’s the Humor of It: Shakespeare and the Four Humors, can be found  in the seating area at the entrance to the Briscoe Library.  Books from the collection of the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library that are highlighted in the exhibit include:

Regimen Sanitatis Salerni (1575)

Avicenna, The Canon of Medicine (1582)

Robert Burton, The Anatomy of Melancholy (1632)

Both exhibits and their accompanying presentations are programs of the Friends of the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library.  For information about either exhibit, contact Susan Hunnicutt, Special Projects Librarian, hunnicutt@uthscsa.edu.
 
 
 

Make your reservation by Friday: Annual Dinner of the Friends of the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library

Basil A. Pruitt, Jr., MDThursday, November 7, 6:30 p.m. to 8:30 p.m.

Old San Francisco Steak House

Basil A. Pruitt, Jr., M.D., F.A.C.S., F.A.C.M., will be the guest speaker at the 43rd Annual Meeting of the Friends of the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library. The evening’s program, to be held at the Old San Francisco Steak House, will explore a significant chapter in San Antonio’s history, reviewing the treatment innovations developed at the Army Burn Center that have revolutionized care and improved the survival of even massively burned patients.

Dr. Pruitt received his M.D. degree in 1957 from the Tufts University School of Medicine. He was drafted in 1959. Assigned to the U.S. Army Institute for Surgical Research (ISR) at Fort Sam Houston, he completed his residency at Brooke Army Medical Center in 1964 and went on to serve 31 years with the ISR. For 27 of those years, he was its commander and director.

Nixon Dinner InformationComplete information about the Annual Dinner and Presentation, and other activities of the Friends, can be found in the organization’s newsletter:

Friends of the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library – Newsletter 2013

Friends of the Nixon Library – Membership and Dinner Reservation Form

Susan Hunnicutt, Special Projects Librarian

Hunnicutt@uthscsa.edu

NLM offers History of Medicine volunteer internship program

The National Library of Medicine’s History of Medicine Division in Bethesda, MD, welcomes applications for its volunteer internship program from undergraduate students in any discipline, current graduate students in library science or information studies, archival studies, cultural studies, film studies, history of medicine and science, museum studies, preservation, public heath, or related programs.  The program is open to qualified individuals of any age and background who would wish to offer their experiences and skills.

For further information, visit the website of the National Library of Medicine:

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/about/volunteer-intern.html

November 7 – 41st Annual Meeting of the Friends of the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library

Dr. Fernando Guerra, M.D., M.P.H., F.A.A.P., Clinical Professor of Pediatrics at the UT Health Science Center, and recently retired Director of Health for the San Antonio Metropolitan Health District, will be the speaker at the 41st Annual Meeting, Dinner and Presentation of the Friends of the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library.  The event will take place Monday, November 7, 2011 at 6:30 p.m. at the Doubletree Airport Hotel.

The topic of Dr. Guerra’s presentation, “Doctors and Dollars May Not Always Be Enough!” will provide the occasion for him to reflect on the health care system, its institutions, professionals, personnel, technology and investments, as well as measurable progress in the delivery of health care over the past forty years. Dr. Guerra will also consider ongoing challenges and opportunities, especially in light of the Affordable Health Care Act.  How is it possible to fill the gaps when doctors and dollars may not be enough?

The Friends of the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library invite all those interested in the history of medicine   to an enjoyable evening of good food and conversation.

The cost of attendance is $40/person.  Advance registration is required.  Student attendance is $30 and includes Friends membership.  Opportunities to sponsor student attendees at the dinner are available.

Please register by October 3: Send registration form to Briscoe Library – MSC 7940, UTHSCSA, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229-9674, Attention: Susan Hunnicutt.  Email questions to Hunnicutt@uthscsa.edu.